The Use of a Clicker versus ‘Yes In Dog Training
By Niki Tudge Copyright 2012
There is always lots of discussion and debate about the use of clickers versus verbal markers such as ‘yes’ when training dogs. I actually use and recommend both, not at the same time as this weakens the conditioning effect through either blocking or overshadowing, but for different applications they each have their place.
When I work with my dogs I can either use ’yes’ as a conditioned reinforcer or a clicker. What is important when using either of these tools is whether the conditioning has been done correctly and how their ongoing use is employed?
A conditioned reinforcer is a secondary reinforcer that has acquired reinforcing properties because it has been paired repeatedly with a primary reinforcer. A clicker or the word
‘yes’ becomes a conditioned reinforcer by being paired with food through repeated trials, click-treat, click-treat or ‘yes’-treat, ‘yes’-treat. The number of trials required will vary from dog to dog and will depend on the value of the primary reinforcer, the environment the training is being done in and the timing and presentation of the “click-treat”
Each of these tools has advantages and disadvantages. There have been scientific papers written about the efficacy of clickers versus a verbal marker. One of those papers was written by Lindsay A. Wood, MA, CTC titled “Clicker Bridging Stimulus Efficacy” data from this study provide strong evidence that the rate of novel behavior acquisition is significantly faster for dogs trained with the clicker bridging stimulus in comparison to dogs trained with the verbal word “good.”
What I present here is anecdotal evidence not on the efficacy, to that I have no apposing position, but on the practical ease of using a verbal marker “yes” versus the use of a clicker for novice dog trainers and pet dog owners.
As a training tool the clicker can be hard for new dog owners and trainers to grasp; it is just another thing in their hand they have to focus on. In a new puppy class or a beginner dog training class when an owner has their dog on a leash with a treat bag around their waist and they are surrounded by lots of distractions, the clicker can be that “one too many item” they have to coordinate that throws them for a loop. Throw into the mix that they are also learning prompts and hand signals that need to be clear, consistent and concise, timed correctly with verbal cues and then the click, it is not hard to imagine a comedy of errors with clicks and treats coming from all angles, food falling on the floor and dogs performing all kinds of behaviors and being inadvertently reinforced for them during the coordination debacle.
Not to say this is always the case. I have seen, in my many years of dog training, pet dog owners pick up a clicker for the first time and immediately, through great hand-eye-coordination and manual dexterity, get it right. The clicker does offer a unique sound and when paired correctly with food it can become a very powerful training tool.
‘Yes’ The Verbal Marker
Now the ‘yes,’ or verbal marker, can be easier in some cases for pet dog owners and new dog trainers to grasp. Everyone knows how to say ‘yes’. Concentrating on using the word ’yes’ correctly can help prevent nervous dog owners second-guessing what they are doing, confusing their dog in the process, and does not need to be held or coordinated with the leash, treats etc.
It is best to practice saying the word ‘yes’ in a neutral and unique way, so when delivered it is consistent and cannot be used by mistake when interacting with your dog throughout the day. Keep it as a training tool, condition it correctly and it can be a great option.
On that note I have observed that when the ‘yes’ is used correctly it tends to delay by a second the delivery of food to the dog ensuring that the condition process is not done simultaneously or backwards. To be most effective the click or ‘yes should be started and finished before the delivery of the treat, this is called trace conditioning and is the most effective conditioning method. For those of you who perform with your dog or attend competitions ‘yes’ is that one tool you can take into the ring with you unlike the clicker that remains with your treat bag and dog gear by your crate.